Oral and Dental Health: Symptoms, Types, Causes & Treatment

Oral and Dental Health: Symptoms, Types, Causes & Treatment


Dental and oral health is a key part of your overall wellbeing and health. Poor oral hygiene can lead to dental cavities and gum illness and is also associated with heart disease, cancer and diabetes.

It is a lifelong engagement to preserve healthy teeth and gums. It’s good that you learn oral hygiene habits earlier like brushing, blowing (FLOSSING), and reducing the intake of sugar would save you from costly dental procedures and long-term oral problems.

Symptoms of dental problem

You shouldn’t wait to go to your dentist to have symptoms. Visiting Dentists two times a year, help you find a problem in your teeth until you notice any sign by yourself.

If you have any of the following warning signs about dental problems, you should have an

Appointment with your dentist as quickly as possible:

  • ulcers, sores, or tender areas in the mouth that won’t heal after a week or two
  • bleeding or swollen gums after brushing
  • chronic bad breath
  • sudden sensitivity to hot and cold temperatures or beverages
  • pain or toothache
  • loose teeth
  • receding gums
  • pain with chewing or biting
  • swelling of the face and cheek
  • the clicking of the jaw
  • broken teeth
  • common dry mouth

In that case, if you have that a high fever, facial, or neck swelling accompanied any of these symptoms, you should go for emergency medical treatment.

Causes of dental disease

Your oral cavity is basically a home of all kinds of bacteria, viruses and fungi in your oral cavity. Some of them are there that make up your mouth’s normal flora. In small quantities, they are usually harmless. A high sugar diet, however, creates conditions for the development of acid-generating bacteria. This acid breaks down tooth enamel and causes tooth decay.

In a sticky matrix called the plaque, bacteria that are near your gumline thrive. Plaque builds up, hardens and migrates the length of your tooth if brushing and flossing do not remove it regularly. This can inflammation your gums and cause gingivitis.

Increased inflammation causes your genitals (Gums) to start pulling away. This process creates pockets in which pus can collect eventually. This later stage of gum disease is known as periodontitis.

There are many factors that contribute to gingivitis and periodontitis, including:

  •  smoking
  •  poor brushing habits
  • frequent snacking on sugary foods and drinks
  • diabetes
  •  the use of medications that reduce the amount of saliva in the mouth
  • family history, or genetics
  •  certain infections, such as HIV or AIDS
  • hormonal changes in women
  • acid reflux, or heartburn
  •  frequent vomiting, due to the acid

Types of dental disease

It’s no surprise how many things can go wrong over time, especially as you aren’t taking proper attention to your teeth. we use our teeth and mouths a lot. Proper oral hygiene can prevent most dental and oral problems. At least one dental problem in your lifetime will probably happen to you.


The other name of cavities is caries or tooth decay.  These are areas of the tooth that are permanently damaged and can even contain holes. These are quite common cavities. it happens when Bacteria, food and acid covers your teeth and form a plaque.

The acid starts to eat away at enamel and then comes on underlying dentin or connective tissues. And very slowly with time, it leads to permanent damage.

Gum disease (gingivitis)

Gingivitis is a gum disease that is an inflammation of gums.  It is usually due to bad brushing and flossing habits that plaque built on the teeth. Gingivitis could swell and bleed your gums if you brush them or floss them. Gingivitis untreated may lead to periodontitis, an infection that is more serious.


The infection can spread to your jaw and bones as periodontitis progresses. The inflammatory reaction can also occur in the entire body.

Cracked or broken teeth

A tooth can crack and crumble during chewing hard food or grind the teeth at night. A splitting tooth may be very painful. If you have a cracked or broken tooth, you should visit your dentist immediately.

Sensitive teeth

If your teeth are sensitive you will feel pain or discomfort after getting cold or hot foods or beverages. “Dentine hypersensitivity” is the tooth sensitivity and it happens temporarily sometimes, after having a root canal or a fill. The result may also be:

  • gum disease
  • receding gums
  • a cracked tooth
  • worn-down fillings or crowns

Of course, some people have sensitive teeth due to their thinner enamel. Naturally sensitive teeth can usually be treated with a change in your daily oral hygiene scheme. For people with sensitive teeth, there are specific toothpaste and mouthwash brands.

Oral cancer

Oral cancers include cancer of the:

  • gums
  • tongue
  • lips
  • cheek
  • the floor of the mouth
  • the hard and soft palate

The first person to identify oral cancer is usually a dentist. The most important risk factor for oral cancer is smoking and chewing tobacco. An estimated 50,000 people have been diagnosed with oral cancer this year, according to the Oral Cancer Foundation (OCF) report. The better the prospects, the earlier oral cancer is diagnosed.

Treatments of dental problems

You think that you have healthy teeth. Even then you must to go for an annual checkup or twice in a year to your dentists because your mouth is the gateway to your health. Your dentist will recommend other treatments if he sees signs of gum disease, infections, or other problems.

Cleanings: What a professional cleaning can do you can’t do by yourself to get rid of any plaque while brushing and flossing. Not only that it’ll also remove tartar. Usually, a dental hygienist performs this cleaning. The hygienist will use a high-powered toothbrush to brush your teeth because it’s a matter to remove tartar from your teeth. After this flossing and rinsing are carried out to wash out any debris.

Deep cleaning is also known as root planning and scaling. It removes tar from above and below the gum line which cannot be accessed when cleaning the routine.

Fluoride treatments: Fluoride is a naturally occurring mineral. After the dental cleaning, your dentist will apply a fluoride method to help fight off cavities. This method can help bring back the natural enamel of your tooth and make them strong to fight against bacteria and acid.

Antibiotics: Another method is Antibiotics. The dentist starts it when your teeth show signs of a gum infection or a tooth sore has spread to other teeth and your jaw. your dentist will suggest your antibiotics to help get rid of the infection. Antibiotics can be in any form such as mouth rinse, gel, oral tablet, or capsule.

Fillings: A filling is a way to restore a tooth damaged by decay back to its normal function and shape. When a dentist gives you a filling, he or she first removes the decayed tooth material, cleans the affected area, and then fills the cleaned-out cavity with a filling material.

By closing off spaces where bacteria can enter, a filling also helps prevent further decay. Materials used for fillings include gold, porcelain, a composite resin (tooth-colored fillings), and an amalgam (an alloy of mercury, silver, copper, tin and sometimes zinc).

Crowns: If after an injury your tooth is broken or cracked or need your dentist will a crown. There are two types of crowns: an implant crown that fits over an already implant, and a regular crown that fits over a natural root.

Sealants: Dental sealants that are placed on the back teeth or molars are thin protective coating, which helps avoid the cavity. Your dentist may advise a sealant for your children once they are around 6 years of age and they get their second set of molars at age 12. sealants can be applied easily and without any pain.

Root canal: If tooth decay goes throughout the tooth to the nerve, you may need a root canal. During a root canal, the nerve is removed and filled with a biocompatible material, usually a rubber-like material known as gutta-percha and adhesive cement.

The bottom line

Your oral health has an influence over all your body and not just your teeth.  But in specific, poor oral and dental health can contribute problems with your confidence, communication, or diet. You cannot notice any oral problems without any symptoms and only if it gets worse. A regular checkup to your dentist is the best way. Although you can’t control cavity, at least you can reduce the problem.   


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